Over 50 years ago, Chile broke free from imperialist dominance and plunder. Germany too has a long history of exploiting Chile, but this tradition was broken by the GDR’s extensive support for the sovereignty of the Chilean people. The 1973 coup against Allende made these two opposing historical tendencies clear.
From 1960 to 1968, the Republic of Mali was at the forefront of social revolution in Africa. The country’s governing party, the Union Soudanaise, had refused to settle for formal political sovereignty and declared in 1960 that the republic would opt for “l’option socialiste” to secure economic independence from imperialism and social liberation for the Malian people. This brief episode of revolutionary upheaval in Mali offers insights into several central aspects of anti-imperialism in the 20th century.